Transitions

Transgender Lives, Transgender Pride, Transgender Rights

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Don’t genderize fashion!

Posted by Henric C. Jensen on August 4, 2014

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Turkey’s transsexuals face increasing violence

Posted by TransMan on April 21, 2008

By Selcuk Gokoluk  |  October 3, 2006

ISTANBUL (Reuters) – Belgin still vividly remembers the night, more than a quarter of a century ago, when police herded her and dozens of other transsexuals and transvestites on to a train as part of a campaign to clean up Istanbul.

“We did not know where the train was taking us. The police beat us and locked us up in the wagons. They gave us no water or food,” she said, evoking scenes reminiscent of World War Two.

The roundup took place just before the 1980 military coup in Turkey which led to the suspension of democracy and the jailing of hundreds of thousands of people for their political views. Some were executed. Many people fled abroad.

Since then, Turkey has taken big strides forward in human rights, scrapping the death penalty and clamping down on torture, with an eye on future membership of the European Union. But Belgin says it still fails to protect people like her.

“I first wore this dress in 1970. Not much has changed since then,” said Belgin, a retired prostitute who now works for Lambda Istanbul, a group that campaigns for the rights of transsexuals, transvestites, gay men and lesbians.

Rights groups say transsexuals face increasing violence and this reflects a wider trend in Turkish society — the growing influence of Islam in daily life since the centre-right AK Party, which has Islamist roots, came to power in 2002.

“Now the police raid their bars and take these people into detention more frequently,” said Huseyin Ayyildiz, branch secretary of the Human Rights Association in Istanbul.

He said this reflected the AK Party’s promotion of more Islamist-minded police officers keen to defend conservative family values.

PIOUS CLIENTS

The intolerance is not restricted to transsexuals or homosexuals, the rights groups say.

“Businesses are having difficulty getting licenses to sell alcohol,” Ayyildiz said. Islam prohibits alcoholic beverages.

In the capital Ankara, Deniz, a transvestite who works as a prostitute, complained that many clients were ignoring her calls.

“Most of my clients are pious Muslim men and they are very afraid that the police will publicize their names,” said Deniz, who also declined to give her full name.

Belgin said Turkish men were guilty of hypocrisy.

“Men who secretly come to us at night for sex jeer at us on the streets,” said Belgin, 53. She said she had to work as a prostitute because prejudice prevented her finding another job.

She said many of her friends had been murdered over the years and violence against transsexuals, most of whom work in the sex industry, showed no sign of abating.

“Some people talk about human rights. I have never seen them,” she said. “Here you can kill a dog or a transsexual. There is no difference.

“The murders of my friends have never been resolved. The police turn a blind eye in such cases.”

Like homosexuality, having a sex change operation is legal in Turkey but there are no laws to protect transgender people from discrimination as there are in some Western countries.

PUBLIC MORALITY

A tradition of tolerance for cross-dressing and same-sex liaisons that existed in the old Ottoman Empire has long faded.

In August, efforts by transsexuals to set up an association in the western, conservative-minded town of Bursa were blocked by the authorities on grounds of protecting “public morality.”

Over the years, many transsexuals have moved from the provinces to Istanbul, a sprawling metropolis which at least provides anonymity and a network of support.

Belgin sees little change in police attitudes.

“There was a police chief (in the past) who was known as bone-breaker Cetin because he did not leave transsexuals before breaking their bones,” she said.

Another liked burning the arms of transsexuals with a cigarette lighter.

“He would then ask how they would endure the fires of hell in the after-life if they cannot stand this,” Belgin said.

And now? “They come with hate and feelings of revenge and do not hide their aim of cleansing Beyoglu (hub of Istanbul’s night life) of its transsexuals.”

Turkish police spokesman Ismail Caliskan rejected the accusations that the police breach human rights.

“The police have always been a target of such accusations … (human rights groups and transsexuals) always say ‘the police beat us’. These claims are not true,” he told Reuters.

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A Trans Man’s Transsexuality 101, Part 1

Posted by TransMan on April 9, 2008

Part One

“No wonder I’m all confused — one of my parents was a woman, the other was a man.” –Ashleigh Brilliant

This essay started out as a reaction to transphobic comments made in an on-line Community. I wanted to confront some of the comments made, and soon realized that in order to make my confrontation comprehensible, I would have to first clarify the issue of “What is Transgender/Transsexuality?” People don’t know what it is, so they base their opinion on misconceptions, misunderstandings and pure ignorance. This in turn leads them to express themselves in offensive, insulting and derogatory ways. I am a big believer in Education. If you educate people, they will be better people for it, and much hurt and pain can be avoided. There will of course always be people who refuse to be educated, but those are the minority.

For the purpose of this essay and to simplify writing it without a whole lot of “disclaimers”, one basic assumption has been made: That what is expressed here is the opinion of the author unless the author is specifically quoting another source than his own brain.

What is Transgender/Transsexuality? To arrive at that question we have to first look at, with an open mind, the question “What is Gender and what is Sex?”

The human creature is by science categorized into two reproductive categories – Male and Female – for our species to reproduce, without various technical assistance, it needs those two very limited physical categories. Those two categories are only meaningful in the context of reproduction. This is what we usually qualify as Sex. Male and Female.

Gender is the personal non-physical identification of each human being along a spectrum we have been taught to call Man <—> Woman. Some identify as men, others as women. Some identify as both, others as neither. Society in general expects us to identify as Man if our reproductive category is Male and Woman if our reproductive category is Female. Society expects Gender to coincide with Sex.

Human Society has also assigned specific traits, roles and behaviors to the categories Male and Female, and made those traits, roles and behaviors normative for Man <—> Woman. I.e if we are born within one of the two Sexes, we are expected to show traits, behaviors and assume the role that Society has determined is normative for that specific Sex.

However, this simplification of human experience and expression is exactly that, a simplification. It excludes any and all experiences and expressions of Gender that are not directly congruent with the reproductive categories.

In defense of this simplification it has to be said that Gender identity usually follows Sex identity so that Man=Male and Woman=Female. However, what is true for the majority is not true for all.

Society, with its narrow definition of Gender as normatively congruent with Sex has great difficulty in dealing with those of us who do not fit the simplification. This difficulty, while it should force Society to work on its problem and adapt to include the minority, creates a multitude of hardships for the minority. One of them is the idea that those who do not fit the simplification have somehow failed to conform with what Society considers normal because they are confused about their Gender identity. Another is that they are delusional and need psychiatric/psychological treatment to be cured from their delusion that they are born Men in Female bodies/Women in Male bodies. Transsexuality is still listed as a psychiatric disorder in the medical literature.

Nature or Nurture?

There has been a lot of debate about what determines our Gender-identity – Nature or Nurture. My own human experience tells me that Gender-identity is hard-wired into us. We are born with a Gender Identity. For most of us this Identity is then confirmed by our family and environment and crystallized further through the normative expectations of Human Society.

Still, this is not the case for all of us, and this is where Transgender comes in.

Some of us identify as Men, despite the fact that our reproductive category is Female, and some of us identify as Women, despite the fact that our reproductive category is Male.

Our identification may qualify anywhere within the spectrum Man <—> Woman and not all Transgendered people identify at the ultimate ends of the spectrum. Still others are born within the reproductive categories of both Sexes, they are Intersexed, and may also identify anywhere within the spectrum of Man <—> Woman or Neither/Both.

We may also feel more or less comfortable with the physical reality of our Sex. Some have no problems with being Men and Female at the same time or Women and Male at the same time. Others cannot live unless they are allowed to surgically correct the birth-defect of their Sex.

How is Gender identity hardwired into us?

What in the human organism is it that determines whether we are born Male/Men, Female/Women or Male/Women, Female/Men?

The simple answer is hormones.

All human fetuses are Female in appearance. Not until 6-7 weeks into pregnancy is the physical manifestation of Sex determined. At that time in human physical development, the fetus is flooded with the hormones that coincide with the chromosomal blue-print – Testosterone for XY and Estrogen for XX. This is the general Scientific expectation.

When, as happens at times, the hormone that is non-congruent with the blue-print is released, instead of one that is congruent with the chromosomal blue-print, the child ends up with variations in its reproductive category, so that it is born with an ambiguous Sex identification. The intensity (amount of hormone released) of the flooding, science suggests, is responsible for how strong the ambiguity is.

Because Science cannot determine exactly where Identity is situated in the human organism, and human experience tells us that we all have some sort of Gender Identity, it is plausible, also scientifically, to assume that this hormonal flooding is responsible also for the formation of Gender-identity, and that the amount of hormones released at the flooding determines where within the spectrum Man <—> Woman the child will identify.

This is what makes some of us Transsexual/Transgendered.

What is Transsexuality and how does it manifest in reality?

DSM-III (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Revision) distinguished between Primary or True Transsexuality and Secondary or Pseudo-Transsexuality. What separates those two categories from each other within DSM-III is whether the “Gender identity problem” surfaced prior to puberty or during/after puberty. However those categories were abandoned in DSM-IV because “1) such patients [true Transsexuals] were rarely encountered; 2) those who requested genital reconstructive surgery more commonly had adolescent histories of fetishistic cross-dressing or autogynephilic fantasies without cross-dressing; 3) some of the original true Transsexuals had falsified their histories to make their stories match the earliest theories about the disorder [to make sure they would get the treatment they needed].” I.e, the Medical Community realized that their classifications didn’t fit human experience. DSM-IV also changed the nomenclature and used “Gender Identity Disorder” to designate the diagnosis instead of “Transsexuality”.

The criteria for diagnosis set forth by DSM-IV can be found here.

Theoretically, prior to DSM-IV, one had to display all of those criteria and sub-criteria in order to be eligible for Gender Reassignment. With DSM-IV came a less restrictive and more allowing and individual interpretation of those criteria, as can be seen in the wording in ยง 2 “Either of the following must be present…”. It also became less important whether one had an early history of cross-identifying or not. The category Secondary/Pseudo Transsexuality disappeared. This category is however still of interest to this essay, so don’t throw it out.

Not all Transsexuals had any direct problems during childhood. For rather many the problems and the subsequent vocalization of Transsexuality or cross-identification didn’t appear until they encountered the physical changes typical for respective Sex. They may have appeared completely content with their Sex, while still displaying what Society would consider cross-identifying behavior, such as being tom-boys, dressing in boys clothes, playing with dolls and being uninterested in activities traditionally assigned to either Gender.

The frequency of occurrence of this “type of Transsexual” who openly claims that they didn’t experience any overt cross-identification seem to have increased over a period of the last 10-15 years. This has made me question why, if Gender-Identity is hardwired into us during our time as fetuses, some Transsexuals end up having no direct cross-identification during childhood and some do. I think the answer lies in how Society have changed its Gender-expectations. Gender-roles and what is expected of each Gender/Sex have changed. It is has become easier for parents to be tolerant of cross-identifying activities in their children, traditional Gender-roles are not forced on children as much as it used to be, thus Transsexual children does not have to confront the expectations. I simply think that what DSM-III categorized as Secondary Transsexuals were born into a more tolerant, allowing and less Gender-obsessed environment, which means that they were not presented with the impact of being a Gender-variant until puberty. This doesn’t in any way make them less Transsexual.

Many non-trans folk seem to think and feel that if one has ever engaged in activity considered typical of one’s genetic Sex, one cannot really be Transsexual. There is for instance the idea that trans men cannot really be trans men if they have had children or are planning to have children using their Female reproductive organs. This is inaccurate. Many, many Transsexuals try and some manage to somewhat conform to the Gender norms of non-trans Society and some are even very successful at it, to a point where not even those closest to them have any idea that they are at war with themselves. Some try to “cure” themselves by getting married, having children and generally exaggerate the normative Gender roles.

Another misconception about trans people is that they always feel unhappy about their genitalia and seek to have them corrected. This too is inaccurate. Especially among trans men. Many trans people accept that the surgical methods and out-come are less than satisfactory both aesthetically and functionally, and never have any surgery to alter their genitalia. Others simply see their reproductive organs as the reproductive organs of their Gender, even if those, from a stand point of science, would be classified as the reproductive organs of their genetic Sex, and never see the need to alter them.

So, what is Transsexuality? Transsexuality is the experience of being born within the reproductive category that is more or less opposite of what one identify as. A Transsexual man typically identifies as Male while having the reproductive organs of Female, and a Transsexual woman typically identifies as Female while having the reproductive organs of Male.

This categorization is important for the non-tans person to remember. Transsexuals are always identified by their Gender, never by their Genetic Sex.

Posted in Transgender, Transsexuality, Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , | 1 Comment »